One of the main elements of the knee joint is the meniscus. It is a kind of shock absorber from the hyaline cartilage, which plays an important role in providing the articular function.
In the knee joint, there are internal and external menisci. Meniscus is a cartilage of fibrous structure, having the shape of a crescent. Its structure assumes the presence of the main body, the anterior and posterior horn. Circulation in the meniscus is undeveloped, and depending on the zone and the nature of the lesions, the probability of a partial or complete restoration of the meniscus can be different. Often, the meniscus is not restored after trauma.
Varieties of meniscus injuries
In the modern medical field, there are three types of damage to the meniscus:
Violation of the integrity of the body of the meniscus;
Damage to the front or rear horn;
There may be damage only to the meniscus, as well as its damage in the complex of general trauma to the knee joint.
Causes of damage and their signs
Often this type of injury is experienced by athletes experiencing a constant huge load on their legs. There are also a number of other causes of damage to the abovementioned part of the knee joint.
There are two periods of the described damage.
An acute period implies obvious signs immediately after the injury. The main symptoms are pronounced painful sensations, possible limited movements of the joint, edema of the injured area caused by intraarticular bleeding. Jae experts often take this trauma for the usual sprain or bruise. After the usual for bruising and stretching treatment, relief comes, and for a while the patient can feel quite comfortable.
The chronic period comes after a repeated, even minor injury. Painful sensations are resumed, the patient begins to move with great difficulty. A blockage of the joint can be observed. In chronic form, periods of relief alternate with periods of exacerbation of trauma. If you do not go to the doctor on time, posttraumatic arthrosis may develop.
Methods of diagnosis and treatment
In addition to external examination, the patient should undergo CT or MRI, be examined by ultrasound and, if necessary, make an X-ray. X-rays can help to exclude or confirm the presence of damage to other parts of the knee joint.
Depending on the complexity of the damage, conservative methods of treatment and surgical intervention are used.
Conservative treatment involves the imposition of gypsum for a period of one to one and a half months, the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Later, physical therapy can be prescribed. The period of conservative treatment reaches two months. If after him the problem is not completely eliminated, and the patient still suffers from pain and blockade of the joints, an operation is prescribed.
In modern medicine, the method of treating a meniscus injury is arthroscopic surgery. For this, the patient needs to stay in the hospital for up to three days, and the rehabilitation period takes no more than a month.
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