Premenstrual syndrome is a complex of symptoms that appear in the second half of the menstrual cycle a few days before the onset of menstruation. With this condition, one in five women face up to 30 years of age and every second after. Symptoms manifest themselves both at the physical and mental level and can vary greatly among women.
At present, the exact causes of the development of premenstrual syndrome have not been established. There are many theories explaining the emergence of various symptoms, but none of them covers the whole complex. The most complete at the moment is the hormonal theory, according to which the cause of ICP is the change in the hormonal balance, caused by an increase in the level of estrogen and a decrease in the level of progesterone.
One of the possible factors for the development of premenstrual syndrome is avitaminosis, in particular the deficiency of vitamins B6, A and trace elements of calcium, magnesium and zinc. Of great importance is also the genetic factor, that is, the nature of the PMS flow can be inherited.
Symptoms of premenstrual syndrome.
There are about 150 different symptoms of PMS, which can also occur in different combinations, which significantly complicates the diagnosis. Based on the main symptoms, several forms of the syndrome are distinguished.
The neuropsychiatric form is characterized by disturbances in the emotional and nervous spheres. It is characterized by emotional instability, tearfulness, irritability, aggression, weakness, fatigue, dizziness, insomnia. apathy, wanton anguish, depressive states, suicidal thoughts, olfactory and auditory hallucinations, a sense of fear, sexual dysfunction, weakening of memory. Also, there are violations of appetite, bloating, soreness and enlargement of the mammary glands.
When cefalgic form, vegetative-vascular and neurotic symptoms predominate: migraine-like, pulsating headaches, often accompanied by nausea or vomiting, puffiness of the eyelids, diarrhea. Approximately one third of women have heart palpitations, pain in the heart, nervousness, increased sensitivity to smells and sounds. This form is more common in women who have in the past traumatic brain injuries, frequent stresses, infectious diseases of the nervous system.
The main manifestation of premenstrual syndrome with edematous form becomes fluid retention in the body and, as a result, edema of the face, limbs, mammary glands, weight gain, sweating, thirst, decreased urination, itchy skin, digestion problems, constipation. diarrhea, bloating.
In the case of crisis forms, sympathetic adrenal crises are noted (a condition caused by an increase in the level of adrenaline), which occur with an increase in arterial pressure, tachycardia, panic attacks, numbness, and cold extremities. There may be pain in the heart without changes on the ECG. As a rule, the end of the attack is accompanied by copious urination. Overwork and stress can be factors triggering seizures. This form of premenstrual syndrome is the heaviest and requires mandatory medical intervention.
Due to the variety of symptoms, the diagnosis of premenstrual syndrome can be severely hampered. The main diagnostic criterion is the cyclicity of complaints and their disappearance after menstruation. The study of the level of hormones (estrogen, progesterone, prolactin) in the blood helps to establish the form of premenstrual syndrome. It is recommended to undergo the procedure of electroencephalography (EEG.
For accurate diagnosis, a survey is recommended for physicians of various specialties of the endocrinologist, neurologist, cardiologist, therapist, psychiatrist.
Treatment of premenstrual syndrome.
For the treatment of PMS, pharmacological and non-drug methods are used.
To non-pharmacological methods is, in the first place, psychotherapy. A woman must abide by the regime, avoid excessive stress and have a good rest and sleep.
A diet with a high content of plant and animal proteins, fiber and vitamins is recommended. In the second half of the menstrual cycle, you must limit the use of coffee, chocolate, alcohol, sugar, salt, animal fats and carbohydrates. Relieve the condition will help regular exercise, therapeutic aerobics, massages.
Among the medicamental methods, the main role is played by hormone therapy with preparations analogous to progesterone. With edematic and cephalalgic forms, anti-prostaglandin preparations indomethacin, naprosin, are recommended.
Since in any form of the premenstrual syndrome there are neuropsychiatric manifestations, in the second phase of the cycle, a few days before the onset of symptoms, sedative and psychotropic medications are prescribed tazepam, rudotel, etc. These drugs belong to the tranquilizers group, so they should be used only under the supervision of a doctor.
In the edematic form of premenstrual syndrome, antihistamines (tavegil, diazolinum) are used. Assign Veroshpiron 25 mg 2 3 times a day for a few days before the onset of symptoms. This drug has potassium-sparing and diuretic action, lowers blood pressure.
In cephalic and crisical forms, drugs normalizing the synthesis of hormones, for example, parlodel (1.25 2.5 mg per day) in the second phase of the cycle are used. In the case of soreness and engorgement of the mammary glands, the use of a progestogen gel containing progesterone is recommended.
Beneficial effect is the use of vitamins E and B6, calcium, potassium, zinc, magnesium, manganese and amino acid tryptophan. A good effect in treatment is provided by alternative methods of acupressure (acupressure), aromatherapy.
Treatment of premenstrual syndrome is a long process, lasting about 6-9 months, repeated in case of relapse. In rare cases, treatment can last the entire reproductive period. For greater effectiveness, it is necessary to strictly follow the regime and instructions of the doctor.
The basis for the prevention of premenstrual syndrome is the observance of the work and rest regime, the reduction of psychoemotional loads. It is important to exclude factors provocateurs of poor health. It is recommended to limit the use of coffee, tea, alcoholic beverages and chocolate, especially at the end of the cycle. Instead, a diet rich in fiber, herbal teas, juices (especially carrots, lemons and pineapple) is recommended. It is necessary to increase the vitamin B6 content in the daily diet. It is found in the liver, fish, walnuts and soybeans.
The prescribed symptomatic treatment, as a rule, leads to an improvement in the state already in the second half of the menstrual cycle.