Irregular painful periods, pain in the lower abdomen – all these are the first symptoms of an ovarian cyst. However, very often this disease is asymptomatic.
The ovarian cyst is a small, hollow formation that is filled with fluid inside. As a rule, develop cysts from the ripening in the ovary follicle. It is worth noting that most cysts are not dangerous to the health of women and often go away without treatment, such cysts are called functional or temporary.
Such cysts, as a rule, appear as a result of violation of ovulation. In this case, the follicle continues to grow, and the liquid begins to accumulate in the yellow body. Functional cysts go by themselves and do not require treatment. However, complications such as: cyst rupture, torsion, as a result – internal bleeding are not excluded.
More serious pathologies requiring treatment are abnormal cysts. The main reason for the appearance of these cysts is a hormonal failure in the body of a woman. Abnormal cysts are those cysts that do not pass within 3 months. Treatment of such cysts can be, as medicamentous, and surgical.
What is the ovarian cyst?
Ovarian cyst is a benign ovarian formation that relates to tumor-like processes and arises from the accumulation of secretion in the ovarian tissue.
It is a cavity filled with a liquid. The wall of the ovarian cyst forms a thin layer of cells that produce this fluid. In the event that the cyst does not exert pressure on other organs, it is not touched and treated medically, but if there is a danger of cyst effect on neighboring organs, a puncture or surgical removal is performed.
The ovarian cyst can be small, and can reach huge sizes, growing in diameter to 10-12 cm.
The follicular cyst The follicular cyst of the ovary can be formed in the event that ovulation does not occur. The most common occurrence of follicular cysts occurs in girls in the period of puberty.
Yellow body cyst The yellow body cyst is formed on the site of a non-regressed yellow body, in the center of which, as a result of circulatory disturbance, hemorrhagic fluid accumulates. The diameter of the cyst of the yellow body is usually no more than 6-8 cm.
The parovarial cyst The parovarial cyst arises and develops in the area of the mesentery of the uterine tube from the cervix and the appendage of the ovary. It is a thin-walled single-chamber formation, in diameter from 12 to 20 cm.
Dermoid cyst The dermoid cyst inside often contains various appendages: hair, cartilage, fat cells, bone and teeth tissue, etc. prisoners in a mucus mass, and covered with a thick thick-walled capsule. In diameter, the dermoid cyst can reach 15 cm.
Endometrial cyst Endometrioid cyst is formed when endometrial tissue grows in the ovaries. Endometrioid cysts of the ovaries often are bilateral and will grow in diameter from 4-5 cm to 15-20 cm.
Symptoms of an ovarian cyst.
The first symptoms pointing to the presence of a cyst in the ovary is a dull pain in the lower abdomen, as well as pressure from the inside, a feeling of fullness. Irregular, painful periods, coming later than usual, are the most common symptoms of the ovarian cyst. Also, the presence of a cyst in the ovaries may indicate an increase in size or bloating.
The following clinical manifestations of ovarian cysts are also possible.
intense, sudden pain in the lower abdomen during sexual intercourse or as a consequence of physical stress.
in some cases – weight gain.
increase in body temperature to 38-39C.
tension of the anterior abdominal wall.
heart palpitations (tachycardia.
As the statistics show, the ovarian cyst is diagnosed in 30% of women with regular and in 50% with an irregular menstrual cycle. As a rule, the incidence of ovarian cysts after menopause is reduced to 6.
However, the ovarian cyst can develop and asymptomatic. In this connection, it is impossible to identify it independently, therefore, most often, cysts are detected accidentally during ultrasound diagnosis. In this connection, it is extremely important to regularly visit a gynecologist and do a pelvic ultrasound.
For the diagnosis and detection of ovarian cysts in the clinic RAMI apply the following methods.
Gynecological examination . during which the gynecologist determines the soreness in the lower abdomen or diagnoses the enlarged appendages.
Ultrasound diagnosis is the most informative method for detecting ovarian cysts, especially when a transvaginal sensor is used in the study.
Puncture of the posterior vaginal fornix. With puncture, you can determine the presence of blood or fluid in the abdominal cavity. Most often this method is used for complicated cysts.
Laparoscopy of the ovarian cyst is an operation conducted under general anesthesia without incisions. It is prescribed for suspected rupture of the cyst or torsion of the cyst legs. This method allows the doctor not only to carry out the diagnosis, but also to perform surgical treatment if necessary.
Computer tomography can also help distinguish cyst from other ovarian neoplasms.
A general analysis of blood and urine is prescribed in order to reveal blood loss and inflammation.
Determination of tumor markers-antigens (antigen-125.
A pregnancy test is conducted to exclude an ectopic pregnancy.
Treatment of ovarian cyst.
Treatment of the cyst depends on the complexity of the disease and its shape and can be conservative (medicamental) or surgical.
Conservative treatment of cysts.
For the treatment of uncomplicated cysts, monophasic and 2-phase oral contraceptives are most often used. In addition, the patient with an ovarian cyst is assigned vitamins A, E, B1, B6, K and ascorbic acid. With increased body weight, diet, exercise therapy and balneotherapy are recommended. In the event that conservative (medicamentous) treatment of the ovarian cyst is ineffective, then surgical intervention is necessary.
Surgical treatment of ovarian cysts.
It is shown in dermoid, endometrioid, mucinous ovarian cysts. Similar operations are carried out, both in the usual way with a complete cut, and endoscopically (laparoscopy.
If you have a cyst on the ovary or you have found signs of its occurrence, do not postpone treatment to our clinic.