A bile is called a benign formation, which is a cavity filled with a liquid. The cyst is not a tumor and appears as a result of accumulation in the follicle (the cavity in which the egg is formed) of the ovary of excess fluid.
For the appearance of cysts there are no age restrictions, it can manifest itself in infancy and in postmenopause, but the cyst is one of the most common problems in women precisely the reproductive period of life.
Fortunately, most cysts do not require treatment and go on their own for 1-3 menstrual cycles. Nevertheless, all this time a woman should be under the supervision of a specialist to prevent the development of complications. A cyst that has not disappeared within 3 months is treatable.
Symptoms of ovarian cyst2
Often, the cyst can form and grow without any external signs, but among the symptoms that can occur are the following:
Pain in the lower abdomen, intensifying during menstruation, urination and sexual intercourse
Frequent urge to urinate
Increased abdominal size, pressure sensation
Increase in body temperature (in the presence of an inflammatory process)
Nausea, vomiting (in an acute case)
Problems with conception (infertility)
Causes of ovarian cyst2
The exact causes of the appearance of a cyst are difficult to name. However, hormonal imbalance and inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs are the first candidates in the list of possible factors that accelerate the development of cysts.
Hormonal disorders can be associated with obesity, endocrine diseases, inadequate regimen of taking hormonal drugs.
Chronic inflammatory diseases of the intestine, bladder, pelvic organs can also be a provoking factor for cyst formation.
Only a specialist can diagnose a cyst. To determine the type of cyst, ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs is required.
Types of ovarian cyst2
Follicular – is formed from vesicles in which the ovum ripens – follicles. In the normal state, the ovarian follicle accumulates a certain amount of fluid. If its diameter exceeds 30 mm, they speak of the appearance of a cyst. The wall of the cyst can consist of a connective tissue. Sometimes on one ovary there are several such cells with a liquid at once, and they combine, increasing the cyst in size.
The development of the follicular cyst can be asymptomatic, although sometimes there are pains in the lower abdomen, a delay in the onset of menstruation. Treatment is appointed by the attending physician, and usually consists of anti-inflammatory therapy, as well as observation for 6-8 weeks. In some cases, hormonal treatment is indicated.
In a particularly acute case, surgical intervention with laparoscopy may be required – surgery on the internal organs through small incisions. After such treatment, a woman is prescribed vitamin preparations with vitamins E, C, folic acid for the normalization of the cycle, as well as contraceptives.
The yellow body cyst appears on the site of the already bursted follicle and can contain blood clots. The yellow body is a temporary gland, formed after ovulation in the ovary, producing hormones and providing preparation for pregnancy. This kind of cyst is found in women aged 16 to 45 years. The cause of the appearance of a cyst in this case may be a violation of blood circulation in the yellow body. With its growth, there may be pain in the lower abdomen, although there may be no symptoms.
This type of disease can be accompanied by a hemorrhage, so it is important to undergo a timely examination and prevent complications. In most cases, the cyst of the yellow body undergoes reverse development, so a woman must necessarily be observed by a specialist for 1-3 menstrual cycles. If after this period the cyst remains, it is removed surgically.
Paraovarial cyst occurs in the appendages of the fallopian tubes and ovaries. This kind of cyst can occur in girls during puberty due to growth. The pelvic organs, including the fallopian tubes and ovaries, reach a maximum size during this period, which can cause the cyst to appear. As the education grows, a girl can complain of pain in the lower abdomen, a violation of the menstrual cycle, an increase in the abdomen. At the age of 20 to 40 years, another symptom may be infertility.
To prevent the adhesion process (the appearance of thin films and fusion between the organs), leading to infertility, paraovarial cyst is recommended to operate. After removal of the formation, the fallopian tube and ovary are preserved, the uterine tube assumes normal dimensions.
The endometrioid cyst can appear as a result of the introduction of endometrial cells (the tissue lining the uterus) onto the ovary. The endometrioid cyst is dangerous by a rupture leading to peritonitis – an inflammation of the peritoneum, so a woman may need surgery. As a rule, surgery for removing the cyst is performed by the method of laparoscopy – the introduction through a small incision of a special laser to remove the formation. Laparoscopy and hormone therapy are common methods of treatment of the endometrioid cyst.3
Also there are cystic tumors – unlike cysts, they really are tumors and pose a considerable danger to the health of women. Outwardly, they resemble cysts, so a specialist should conduct a special study to pinpoint the type of the disease.
Despite the predominant absence of symptoms, the cyst can manifest itself with severe pain and serious consequences. In the list of possible complications ovarian cysts are a gap, internal bleeding. In order not to bring the situation to such an outcome, the doctor should consult the first anxiety symptoms.
In each case, the treatment will depend on many factors: the type of cyst, the age of the patient, the characteristics of her body, etc. Not all types of cysts require specific treatment, but the possibility of its self-elimination can not be fully relied upon, a woman should be observed by a specialist who controls the size, behavior and composition of the cyst.
Ways of treatment cysts are divided into medicamental and operative. In both cases, a thorough examination is required, including ultrasound, general blood and urine tests, tomography (X-ray examination type), a pregnancy test and, if necessary, laparoscopy (internal examination) for diagnosis.
Remember that the appointment of drugs and the choice of the scheme for their admission is carried out by a doctor, self-medication can cause serious damage to health.
Pregnancy and ovarian cyst4
Even with an ovarian cyst, pregnancy can occur and proceed without any complications. In most cases, the cyst does not require treatment, does not affect the health of the fetus, so planned monitoring and monitoring the condition of the future mother is enough.
The exception is a large cyst that presses on neighboring organs, as well as acute complications of the disease. To treat ovarian cysts during pregnancy, laparoscopy is also used (operation on internal organs, conducted through small holes 0.5-1.5 cm), requiring minimal incisions and affecting only the foci of the disease. With this operation, through small incisions, a laser is introduced into the body, allowing the cyst to be removed without touching other tissues and without affecting adjacent organs.
The decision to conduct an operation must be weighed and justified. If the cyst during pregnancy does not increase in size, does not change and does not cause a woman discomfort, her treatment can be postponed to the postpartum period.
Prevention of disease2
Since the cyst does not always make itself felt by external manifestations, it is simply impossible to detect it independently. Only regular supervision at the gynecologist and visiting of ultrasound will help to reveal a problem and in time to start to treat it, not allowing occurrence of complications.
Prophylaxis of a cyst is, first of all, careful attitude to one’s health, rejection of bad habits, supervision by a specialist. Do not let the development of chronic diseases, so that the problem does not grow like a snowball. While all the body systems are in a healthy state and equilibrium, there will be no reason for the appearance and development of the ovarian cyst.