General characteristics of the disease.
Ovarian cancer is a common and aggressive oncological disease. It confidently ranks 5th in the number of cases of oncology of various organs among women. The most common epithelial form of ovarian cancer. Much less often malignant pathology develops inside the organ from the so-called sex cells.
Ovarian cancer is rarely diagnosed in women younger than 40 years. There is a relationship between the manifestation of signs of ovarian cancer and hormonal disorders. The risk group includes nulliparous women, as well as patients with 5 or more pregnancies. An increased risk of developing ovarian cancer is found in women with ovarian or breast oncology in a family history. With this 5-year continuous intake of birth control pills can reduce the likelihood of developing ovarian cancer by almost 50.
Symptoms of ovarian cancer.
The early onset of ovarian cancer is usually asymptomatic. Later, at the stage of increasing the tumor and spreading metastases of ovarian cancer, a woman has lower abdominal pain, weakness. An additional symptom of ovarian cancer at this stage is weight loss. At the same time, the size of the abdomen of the patient is continuously increasing. The initial increase in the abdomen provokes tumor growth and its spread to the fatty abdominal tissue – the omentum. At late stage of ovarian cancer, ascites is a sign of the disease and the cause of an increase in the size of the abdomen is the accumulation of fluid behind the peritoneum.
Symptoms of ovarian cancer at an early stage often have an unsystematic character. The first signs of ovarian cancer are often accepted by the patient herself for manifesting the inflammatory process in the ovaries – adnexitis.
With the spread of metastases of ovarian cancer or the tumor itself, digestive disorders, constipation, tenesmus, intestinal obstruction become the symptoms of ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer metastases that have spread to bones, the brain and other organs and systems have even more extensive symptoms: bone thinning, fractures, various neurological disorders, etc.
Stages of ovarian cancer.
The stage of ovarian cancer depends on the size of the tumor, the presence and localization of ovarian cancer metastases in the body. Preoperative definition of the stage of ovarian cancer can only be preliminary. An accurate diagnosis is established during intraoperative revision.
At the first stage of ovarian cancer, the location of the tumor within one ovary is a symptom of the disease. At the stage of ovarian cancer IB, the tumor spreads to the second paired organ. In ovarian cancer of the IC stage, the ovary capsule can be damaged.
For stage II, the following symptoms are characteristic: ovarian cancer has spread to the fallopian tubes or uterus (IIA), to other organs of the pelvis (IIB). At the stage of ovarian cancer IIC, malignant cells are present in the abdominal fluid.
Metastases of ovarian cancer outside the pelvis are characteristic for stage III of the disease. They can be located in nearby and distant lymph nodes, as well as in various organs.
Diagnosis of ovarian cancer.
Early diagnosis of the disease is the key to successful treatment of ovarian cancer. With primary complaints the patient addresses, as a rule, to her gynecologist. After vaginal examination on the armchair, delivery of smears, blood tests for oncological markers and ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs, the woman goes to a narrower specialist – the oncogynecologist.
In differential diagnosis of ovarian cancer, he uses a more accurate ultrasound technique using abdominal transducers. The standard for determining the extent of metastasis of colon cancer is computed tomography, lung radiography, and gastro-and colonoscopy. Cytological or histological confirmation of the type of ovarian cancer is possible by the method of laparoscopy, in which the tissue and peritoneal fluid is taken from the patient under anesthesia through a small incision on the abdomen.
Treatment of ovarian cancer.
Treatment of ovarian cancer, as a rule, combined. It consists of radical tumor removal, radiation exposure and chemotherapy. Postoperative chemoradiotherapy is the usual standard in the treatment of ovarian cancer. They can significantly reduce the likelihood of tumor recurrence and development of ovarian cancer metastases.
With a significant spread of ovarian cancer metastases or large tumor sizes, the oncologist can refer the patient to pre-operative chemotherapy and radiation exposure. Surgery to remove the tumor in this case is appointed only after reaching a tumor of an operative size.
Radical operation depends on the stage of ovarian cancer. With a small tumor size and the absence of metastases of ovarian cancer, a minimally invasive organ-preserving operation is possible. In later stages of ovarian cancer, a cystic surgery is usually performed with complete removal of both ovaries, omentum and uterus, as well as all foci of metastasis.
Postoperative control after treatment of ovarian cancer is carried out for 3-5 years with regular examinations in the oncogynecologist and the delivery of blood tests for the on-markers CA-125.