Oophoritis is the inflammation of the ovary, the paired organ of the female reproductive system, the uterus (fallopian) tube that connects to the uterus. Ovaries are responsible for the maturation of eggs and the production of female sex hormones, so inflammation of the ovary, especially chronic oophoritis, can have the most adverse consequences for the woman’s health, including the cause of infertility.
Causes of oophoritis.
Oophoritis is almost never an independent disease. Ovaries are located so that the primary infection in them can not penetrate. Most inflammation is transmitted to the ovary via the fallopian tube, in this case oophoritis is accompanied by salpingitis (inflammation of the uterine tube), this condition is called salpingoophoritis, or adnexitis (inflammation of the uterine appendages). Pathogens of the oophoritis are sexually transmitted infections (STIs): chlamydia, gonococci, trichomonads, and the like. Less often the inflammation is transmitted to the ovary from another source located in the abdominal cavity, for example, with appendicitis. In this case, the pathogens are streptococci, staphylococci, E. coli.
In some cases, oophoritis can be caused by a common infectious disease of the body, most often of a viral origin.
Factors contributing to the onset of oophoritis are.
Diseases of the genitourinary system.
Foci of chronic infection in the body.
Tobacco smoking. Under the influence of tobacco smoke products entering the body, the composition of mucus that forms a cervical plug changes, resulting in a decrease in its barrier properties, which leads to infection from the external genital tract.
Incorrect lifestyle, overwork, stress as a factor that reduces the protective properties of the immune system.
Random sex life, especially without the use of barrier contraception.
Types and signs of oophoritis.
In clinical practice, distinguish acute, subacute and chronic oophoritis, the process can be unilateral or bilateral.
Acute oophoritis begins suddenly, with sharp pains in the lower abdomen, which can give into the groin, the lumbosacral section. Urination becomes difficult, sometimes painful, there are purulent discharge from the vagina. Symptoms of ooforitis are accompanied by a general deterioration of the condition: fever, fever, headaches and musculo-articular pain.
Chronic oophoritis often has a latent origin, that is, to be primary-chronic, or to develop as a result of a non-cured acute oophoritis. The only sign of chronic oophoritis for a long time is the unexpressed pain syndrome. Pain, as a rule, is fickle, wears a dull, aching character, appears in overwork, hypothermia, stress, during intercourse. Most often such signs of oophoritis in its chronic form appear on the eve of menstruation. Another sign of oophoritis in neglected chronic form is the irregularity of the menstrual cycle due to impaired estrogen production of the affected ovary.
In some cases, chronic oophoritis proceeds so implicitly that it is revealed only when examined for violations of the menstrual cycle or infertility.
Diagnosis of oophoritis.
Diagnosis of oophoritis is considered a difficult task, because the pain syndrome, which is the main sign of the oophoritis, can accompany any diseases of the abdominal cavity. If suspected of oophoritis, a gynecological examination is performed, with mandatory examination of the vaginal microflora. Ultrasound of the ovaries can show changes that have occurred as a result of chronic oophoritis, for a disease in acute form this method is not informative.
The main method of diagnosing oophoritis is laparoscopy. This study using an endoscope, which allows you to visualize ovarian tissue and detect signs of an inflammatory process. To determine the degree of dysfunction of the ovary in a chronic oophoritis, an endocrinological examination is performed, with the compilation of an ovulation diary.
Treatment of oophoritis.
Treatment of chronic oophoritis and acute differs.
In acute oophoritis, a course of antibiotic therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics is prescribed, often in combination with sulfanilamide preparations. Anesthetics and anti-inflammatory drugs are used, bed rest is desirable, an ice-bladder is applied to the affected ovarian region in order to relieve the pain syndrome. When signs of acute inflammation subsided, resort to physiotherapy procedures: electrophoresis, laser therapy, magnetotherapy, UHF and microwave therapy, etc. Treatment of oophoritis in acute form is performed in a hospital.
Treatment of chronic oophoritis should be carried out consistently and persistently, otherwise it may threaten the loss of ovarian function. For the treatment of chronic oophoritis, antibacterial therapy is also used, taking into account the revealed microflora. Assign anti-inflammatory steroid drugs. The main efforts are aimed at eliminating the infection and combating the adhesion process, for which injections and electrophoresis of resorptive drugs are prescribed. Physiotherapy and balneotherapy are the main methods in the treatment of chronic oophoritis.
It is necessary to understand that the treatment of chronic oophoritis will require a change in the habitual way of life to a healthier one. We need general strengthening procedures that stimulate the body’s own defenses, transition to a healthy diet, rejection of bad habits and increased physical activity to eliminate stagnant phenomena in the pelvis. Only if all these conditions are met can we talk about the possibility of a complete cure.
Complications of oophoritis.
Complication of acute and exacerbated oophoritis can be suppuration of the ovary. This is an acute inflammatory process, which results in purulent melting of the ovary, and it turns into a thin-walled spherical formation filled with pus. This condition requires urgent surgical intervention, since the rupture of the ovary leads to peritonitis.
Chronic oophoritis, which is severe, with frequent relapses, in combination with chronic salpingitis can lead to saktosalpinx – a purulent tumor of the uterine appendages. This condition also requires surgical intervention. The ovary and the fallopian tube are removed.
The most frequent complication of chronic oophoritis is the development of adhesive process, which violates the patency of the fallopian tubes, and sclerosis of the ovary, in which its tissues are replaced by a fibrous tissue, which leads to loss of functions. Since the ovary is the gland of internal secretion, its malfunctioning affects the hormonal background of the woman, which can cause various disorders – from anorgasmia to infertility.
Therefore, the treatment of oophoritis should be started as early as possible, and must be completed to the end.