Inflammation of the breast, associated with a violation of the patency of the ducts, is called mastitis. The most susceptible to the disease are nursing mothers, among them about 15% of the sick.
The cause of the disease is the activity of pyogenic microbes, most often from the group of staphylococci and streptococci. Infection occurs through nipple damage and is transmitted from the baby (with breastfeeding) or through injured household items and clothing. Sometimes the disease develops as a secondary infection after infection of the genitals in the postpartum period.
Types of disease in adults.
Lactation mastitis affects women after childbirth and during breastfeeding. The risk factor for the onset of the disease at this point is ineffective expression of milk or attachment to the breast with impairments: this causes stagnant processes and injuries (cracks and abrasions) of the nipple. As a result, favorable conditions arise for the penetration and development of microbes.
Fibrous-cystic form of mastitis can occur not only in women of any age, but also in men. Its cause is hormonal imbalance, climate change (visiting hot spas), trauma and bruises of the breast, leading to necrosis of fatty tissues. An additional risk factor is diabetes mellitus.
Signs and symptoms of mastitis.
The disease has pronounced first symptoms and are the same regardless of the type of disease.
sudden increase in body temperature to 39 C and related phenomena: lethargy and weakness, periodic chills and fever, headache.
the appearance of acute pain in the chest, the breast becomes hot to the touch.
In the case of postpartum mastitis, the disease occurs within a month after the birth of the child.
In the absence of treatment and prolongation of the treatment to the doctor, signs of mastitis begin to develop and acquire all the properties of an acute inflammatory process. After a couple of days in the chest, a painful compaction is felt, redness of the skin is observed, and there is swelling of the breast.
Methods of treatment of mastitis.
At the first signs of mastitis, it is necessary to begin treatment under the supervision of a specialist. As an urgent measure before a visit to the doctor, it is possible to apply cold to the place of abscess formation.
Preference is given to conservative methods of treatment of mastitis at the initial stages of the disease (with lactational and non-lactational form of the disease).
In the case of the lactational form of the disease, treatment with medications can be recommended when the general condition of the patient is satisfactory at a low body temperature (up to 37.5 C), and also the presence of only one seal in one sector of the breast. When treating a disease in a nursing woman, antibiotics are used that are compatible with breastfeeding. However, on the recommendation of the doctor and in the interests of the mother and child, lactation may be temporarily stopped or interrupted.
Antibiotic therapy is combined with the elimination of factors that led to the creation of conditions for the development of the disease (for example, milk stagnation.
In the absence of a curative effect for two days, to avoid further suppuration, surgical intervention is recommended to open the suppuration or remove the damaged sector.
In women outside the lactation period (including before and during pregnancy, during menopause and menopause), the symptoms of the disease may coincide with the symptoms of breast cancer. Therefore, in this case, the treatment of mastitis involves the removal of a part of the abscess to confirm the non-malignant nature of the disease.
As measures to prevent the occurrence of disease and treatment of mastitis, it is important to take preventive measures in time.
It is recommended that breastfeeding mothers follow all the rules of breastfeeding and do not allow milk stagnation and nipple damage. It is also important to carefully monitor your personal hygiene and the comfort of your laundry (we recommend using special bras for feeding).