Endoprosthetics of the knee joint is a specialized surgical procedure by which it is possible to restore lost limb functions resulting from injury or inflammatory disease, based on the replacement of the bearing surfaces of the knee joint.
Endoprosthetics, or, as they say, replacement of the knee joint, can be carried out in different forms. The joint is replaced in whole or in part. In general, such surgical manipulation is based on the replacement of patients or damaged surfaces of bone or cartilage tissues of the knee joint with prostheses made of metal, plastic and ceramics. The aim of the operation is to provide continuous painless movement in the knee.
Endoprostheses are divided into total, which replace absolutely all articular surfaces of the knee, and single-muscle – a one-sided prosthesis, that is, one part of the knee joint. Single-implant prostheses are used in case the knee joint is damaged by arthrosis only on one side.
To the endoprosthetics of the knee joint are resorted to in cases of severe pathological changes, the cause of which can be:
– Post-traumatic complications;
– Aseptic necrosis;
– development of oncological tumors;
– disturbances in the course of metabolism in the body;
– autoimmune processes, which are characterized by the production of antibodies that affect bone and cartilage tissues of the joints;
– Deforming arthrosis of all possible etiology, the progression of which provoked disruption of the functions of the knee joint.
Surgical procedure of knee arthroplasty is preceded by preliminary diagnosis and consultation with a specialist orthopedic traumatologist, which will identify possible contraindications to the conduct of this surgical procedure. It is necessary to pre-pass X-ray studies, the results of which will reveal how worn the joints of the patient and make the necessary measurements in order to further choose the optimal prosthesis size.
Full endoprosthetics provides for a total replacement of the damaged knee joint surface with a biocompatible design, which is tailored to the individual patient’s characteristics, thanks to which it is possible to restore the smooth movement of the knee joint, to correct the twisted limbs and to free themselves from permanent pain.