Symptoms of endometrial cancer.
Abundant and prolonged menstruation (monthly uterine bleeding associated with the physiological rejection of the endometrium – the inner layer of the uterine mucosa) in women before menopause (the period when menstruation ceases.
Uterine bleeding (discharge of blood from the genital tract, not associated with menstruation) of varying intensity (from smearing discharge to abundant blood flow). Uterine bleeding can occur between menstruation or in women after menopause.
Pain in the lower abdomen of varying intensity and character, depending on the degree of tumor growth in advanced stages of endometrial cancer.
Purulent discharge from the genital tract upon infection.
Symptoms of damage to neighboring organs in advanced stages of endometrial cancer.
the appearance of blood in the urine when the bladder is affected.
the appearance of blood in the stool (the contents of the intestine) with the germination of the tumor into the rectum.
pain in the lower back if there is a violation of the outflow of urine as a result of compression of the ureter with a tumor.
difficulty in emptying the rectum (defecation) when the tumor is squeezed by the intestine.
an increase in the size of the abdomen as a result of a large tumor mass, or when fluid is accumulated in the abdominal cavity (ascites.
Deterioration of overall health in advanced stages of endometrial cancer.
significant reduction in body weight.
loss of appetite.
pronounced weakness and decreased efficiency.
According to the degree of spread of the tumor process to the uterus and neighboring organs, endometrial cancer is classified by stages.
stage 0 – cancer within the endometrium (mucous layer of the uterus.
Stage 1 – cancer within the body of the uterus (affects all layers of the uterus.
stage 2 – the tumor extends to the cervix without leaving the uterine tissue.
stage 3 – the tumor sprouts beyond the uterus.
stage 4 – cancer affects neighboring organs (bladder, rectum, lymph nodes) and can produce metastases (tumor cells come off and flow into the distant organs: lymph nodes, lungs, liver, bones, etc., with blood and lymph flow.
The main cause of the development of endometrial cancer is an increase in the blood level of estrogen (female sex hormone), regulating the growth and division of endometrial cells (the mucous membrane of the uterus). Risk factors for the development of uterine cancer are.
gynecological diseases (diseases of the female genital area): dysfunction of the ovaries. disorders of the menstrual cycle, etc.
taking medications containing high doses of estrogen.
tamoxifen (a drug that affects the reproduction of endometrial cells.
burdened heredity (cancer with maternal relatives – mums, sisters, aunts, grandmothers.
irregular sex life.
absence of pregnancy and childbirth.
the first pregnancy is over the age of 30 years.
the onset of menstruation (monthly uterine bleeding associated with physiological rejection of the endometrium – the inner layer of the uterine mucosa) to 12 years (early menarche.
cessation of menstruation after 55 years (late menopause.
metabolic disorders (obesity, diabetes.
Bad habits (smoking, alcohol abuse, etc.)
psychological problems (stresses, conflict situations.
Approximately 30% of cases of uterine body cancer develop in women without hormonal changes. In these cases, the cancer is preceded by atrophy of the endometrium (a decrease in the thickness of the mucous membrane of the uterus) due to the age-related extinction of the sexual function. Cases of hormone-independent endometrial cancer are associated with a sharp inhibition of immunity.
LookMedBook reminds: the sooner you seek help from a specialist, the more chances to keep health and reduce the risk of complications.
A gynecologist will help with the treatment of the disease.
An analysis of the history of the disease and complaints – when (for a long time) there were pains in the lower abdomen, whether they are spreading somewhere else, whether uterine bleeding occurs, etc.
Analysis of gynecological history – transferred gynecological diseases, surgery, sexually transmitted diseases, pregnancy, abortion, etc.
Analysis of menstrual function – at what age the first menstruation began (the monthly uterine bleeding associated with the physiological rejection of the endometrium – the inner layer of the uterine mucosa), the duration and regularity of the cycle, the profuse and painful menstruation, etc.
Gynecological examination with obligatory bimanual (two-hand) vaginal examination. Gynecologist with two hands to touch (palpation) determines the size of the uterus, ovaries, cervix, their ratio, the condition of the ligamentous apparatus of the uterus and the region of the appendages, their mobility, soreness,
General examination – identification of possible signs of hormonal diseases that could create a background for the development of endometrial cancer, in the uterus: body type, distribution and quantity of adipose tissue, striae (stripes on the skin), type of hair, etc.
Ultrasound examination (ultrasound) of the abdominal cavity and small pelvis – allows you to detect the tumor, its size and location.
Aspiration biopsy of the endometrium – by aspiration (taking in a special syringe inserted through the cervical canal, contents of the uterine cavity), followed by a cytological examination of the material obtained (studying the cells under a microscope to detect or exclude cancer cells.
Separate diagnostic curettage of the uterine cavity and cervical canal (cervical canal) followed by histological examination (study of tissue structure under the microscope) of the material obtained.
Hysteroscopy (cervicohysteroscopy) – with the help of a special optical device of the hysteroscope, examine the mucosa of the uterine cavity and the cervical canal. When suspicious areas of the mucosa are detected, a targeted biopsy is performed (taking a piece of tissue) followed by a histological examination (examination of the tissue structure under a microscope.
Fluorescent diagnostics. A special solution is injected into the uterine cavity, which absorbs cancer cells, and when illuminated in a certain spectrum, they begin to glow, which makes it possible to detect endometrial cancer at the earliest stages of development.
Computed tomography (CT) and / or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdominal cavity, small pelvis and other areas of the body in case of suspected metastases (proliferation of blood and lymph) in the tumor.
Radiography of chest organs with suspicion of tumor metastasis.
Diagnostic laparoscopy. With the help of an endoscope (a long tube with a chamber at the end), inserted into the abdominal cavity, it is possible to determine the boundaries of the tumor, its size, involvement in the process of the abdominal organs.
Consultation of a gynecologist-oncologist. the oncologist.
Treatment of endometrial cancer.
Surgical removal of the tumor.
resection (ablation) of the endometrium – complete removal of the inner layer of the uterus. It is possible in the initial stages of a tumor in specialized oncology centers. A special tool is inserted into the uterine cavity through the neck canal and completely removes the uterine mucosa through electrical, laser or temperature effects.
removal of the uterus through the vagina – possible in the early stages of endometrial cancer.
extirpation of the uterus with appendages – removal of the body and cervix, fallopian tubes and ovaries through a cut in the anterior abdominal wall.
Radiation therapy – the destruction of tumor cells with the help of ionizing radiation (for example, X-ray.
Chemotherapy – the destruction of cancer cells with the help of cytostatics (substances that prevent the division and renewal of cells.
Hormonal therapy (the administration of gestagens, antiestrogens, combined estrogen-yeast preparations) to restore the normal ratio of female sex hormones in the body.
Complications and consequences.
progression of the tumor process (enlargement of the tumor in size, its spread beyond the uterus.
metastasis of the tumor (the spread of tumor cells through the body with blood and lymph flow.
relapse of the tumor (the recurrence of cancer after its cure.
The most favorable for life prognosis in women with early endometrial cancer. If the process is detected at stages 3 and 4, the forecast is worse. However, timely combined treatment (combination of different types of therapy and surgical intervention) in most cases allows to destroy cancer cells in the body and avoid metastases.
Prophylaxis of endometrial cancer.
Normalization of body weight.
Timely treatment of diseases of the female reproductive system (disorders of the menstrual cycle, diseases of the ovaries,
Refusal to smoke and drink alcohol.
Pregnancy planning and preparation for it, exclusion of unwanted pregnancy.
Compliance with the scheme and rules for taking hormonal drugs.
Regular sex life.
Regular visit to the gynecologist (2 times a year.
Ultrasound examination of the uterus (once a year) – in women with risk factors for endometrial cancer.