What is it? – Cervical leukoplakia is quite serious and common (from 1 to 12% according to different authors) gynecological disease.
The question of the causes and mechanisms of its development has not been fully studied. This is what complicates the process of treating such patients.
Leukoplakia in literal translation means “white plaque.
There may be two varieties of this disease.
1) Leukoplakia with atypical cells, which is often referred to as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (cervical dysplasia.
2) Leukoplakia without atypia.
The causes of leukoplakia.
At present, it is suggested that the disease is polyethiologic, that is, leukoplakia is associated with various causes. The main causative factors are.
1) Various infectious diseases of the genitals.
2) Violations in the menstrual-ovarian cycle, which are associated with hormonal imbalance (according to statistical data, women with such disorders are 5 times more likely to suffer from leukoplakia and other cancer processes than in the general population.
3) Disturbances in the immune system.
4) Injury of the cervix, which may occur during labor, during abortion or various intra-uterine procedures.
5) Irrational treatment of pathological processes of the cervix and others.
Thus, all etiological factors can be divided into two main groups. These are endogenous factors that are caused by the state of the organism, and exogenous, associated with the impact of external factors.
Symptoms of cervical leukoplakia.
Leukoplakia occurs without any clinical symptoms. Only some patients can complain of a large amount of leucorrhea, which causes them discomfort, as well as bleeding that occurs after sexual intercourse.
Therefore, additional methods of research are of great importance. As part of a comprehensive survey of such patients, such diagnostic tests as.
according to the indications, a histological examination is carried out (the material is obtained by biopsy.
A modern method for assessing the state of the cervix is microcolpohysteroscopy. It allows you to study the structure of the cervical epithelium without traumatizing the neck. In addition, it can be used to collect material for research.
Treatment of cervical leukoplakia.
The treatment of leukoplakia currently presents certain difficulties, which are related to the lack of developed standards of medical care for this category of women.
Basically, all the recommended methods of treatment imply a local effect on the pathologically altered cervical epithelium. These include.
chemical destruction with the help of various medications.
In the case when leukoplakia is combined with inflammatory processes of the genital tract, in the beginning it is necessary to deal with their treatment. For this, a comprehensive approach is used that includes.
antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action, and also more narrowly directed preparations at presence of result of bacteriological research.
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
correction of accompanying violations.
It is forbidden to use drugs that have a positive effect on tissue metabolism.
They can accelerate the course of proliferative processes in the cervix, which can provoke the development of malignant oncological process. These drugs are.
sea buckthorn oil.
aloe and others.
Of the chemical destructive methods, it is quite effective to use Solkovagin for this purpose. The preparation consists of both organic and inorganic acids. It exerts a cauterizing (coagulating) effect only on the cylindrical epithelium, without damaging the multilayered planar. The drug has a good penetrating ability, which is 2.5 mm, so there is a complete destruction of the pathological site.
This type of treatment is absolutely painless. Its efficiency reaches 75%. It is recommended to use it in young women who do not have a history of delivery.
According to numerous studies, the results from the use of diathermocoagulation are by no means always the best, so this method of treatment is now needed to use is limited.
It can lead to the development of such complications as.
1) The development of endometriosis is a disease in which the growth of endometrial tissue is observed outside the uterine cavity, which should normally not be.
2) Bleeding, which develops when the scab is rejected.
3) Exacerbation of inflammatory processes on the part of the uterus and appendages.
4) Frequent recurrence of leukoplakia.
5) Violation of the ovarian-menstrual cycle.
6) Constant pain in the lower abdomen.
7) Long process of wound healing after diathermocoagulation.
Specialists recommend giving preference to cryotherapy of laser vaporization, which is the most effective and modern method of treatment of cervical pathological processes.
Cryotherapy is based on the harmful effects of low temperatures on altered epithelial cells. The technique is contact and takes 2 to 5 minutes. Usually, the treatment course includes only one procedure, after which a complete cure is achieved. The effectiveness of cryotherapy varies widely from 54% to 96%. Relapse of leukoplakia can be observed after such treatment, if the patient has violations of the ovarian-menstrual cycle.
Laser vaporization is the most modern method of treating cervical leukoplakia. It has the following advantages in comparison with other methods.
protection from infection through the formation of a thin coagulation film.
This procedure is desirable to perform in the early follicular phase (on the 4-7th day of the menstrual cycle). Previously, the vagina should be sanitized. Complete regeneration is usually observed in the interval from crescent to one and a half months.
Surgical methods of treatment are used when cervical leukoplakia is combined with either severe cicatricial cicatricial deformity or its hypertrophy (a significant increase.
In the absence of timely treatment of cervical leukoplakia, there is a real danger of developing a malignant oncological process. Especially it concerns leukoplakia with cellular atypia, which is a precancerous process.
Leukoplakia without atypia is considered as a background process.
Preventive measures should be particularly carefully conducted among women at risk. It should include such patients who.
have those or other irregularities of the menstrual cycle.
have suffered infectious and inflammatory diseases of the reproductive system.
have recurrent false erosions of the cervix.
had significant cervical ruptures in childbirth.
The main activities in the prevention of leukoplakia are.
1) Rational treatment of pathological processes of cervical epithelium, especially when using diathermocoagulation and chemical destructive substances.
2) Timely treatment of the inflammatory processes of the genital organs.
3) Normalization of the hormonal profile.
4) Monthly colposcopy after diathermocoagulation and the use of chemicals.