All women know that they must visit the gynecologist on a scheduled basis once every six months. But it usually does this rarely, waiting for either the appearance of unpleasant symptoms, or pregnancy. In this case, cervical diseases, usually occur secretly and can lead to negative consequences for the female body as a whole. Therefore, in no case should you refuse to visit a gynecologist, based on the alleged absence of complaints or some personal prejudices and fears.
What is it and how does it appear
The diagnosis of erosion of the cervix is put almost every second patient at a gynecologist’s appointment. In general, the disease is one of the most frequent pathologies in women of childbearing age. But what is cervical erosion? This is a violation of integrity, defect or covering the ulcers of its mucous membrane in the vaginal part. Erosion becomes the gateway for infection in the uterus and appendages and can provoke the development of chronic pelvic inflammatory diseases until the onset of infertility. The most dangerous complication of cervical erosion is its degeneration into malignant formation. That is why it is so important to identify it as soon as possible.
There are many causes and triggers of this disease, but the main ones are:
– hormonal disorders and decreased immunity, malfunctions in the menstrual cycle;
– too early onset of sexual activity, as well as early pregnancy and childbirth;
– Frequent change of sexual partners;
– poor personal hygiene;
– mechanical trauma resulting from severe childbirth, abortion and other medical manipulations; because of incorrect use of vaginal contraceptives or mistakenly performed douching, or too coarse sex;
– Inflammatory and infectious diseases of the genitourinary sphere, including their untimely and incorrect treatment;
– bacterial and viral diseases;
The situation with cervical erosion is complicated by the fact that this disease does not have pronounced symptoms and in most cases does not manifest itself at all. But in the course of the development of erosion, patients can start to celebrate:
– bloody, and sometimes purulent discharge between menstruation, which can appear, for example, after a sexual act.
– profuse vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor.
– more prolonged and profuse menstruation.
– Pain in the lower abdomen during urination or intercourse.
During the examination of the patient, the gynecologist first examines the cervix in the mirrors. As a result, a defect of the epithelium can be found on its mucous membrane (the epithelium is the cells that cover the vaginal part of the cervix and protect it) in the form of a bright red spot against the background of healthy tissues that will bleed when it contacts the gynecological tool. Depending on the types of erosion, there will be other external signs of the disease.
But in any case, in addition, colposcopy is also performed (examination of the cervix and vagina under magnification) and examination of the cellular smear from the erosion surface to exclude oncological diseases. Examination of the cervix with an optical device that increases the image by 25-32 times, is absolutely painless. These manipulations allow the doctor to make an accurate diagnosis and prescribe a treatment. In addition, analyzes for infections and sexually transmitted viruses, HIV and hepatitis, tests for flora, etc. are conducted.
Types of cervical erosions
In gynecology, there are several types of cervical erosion: true, pseudo-erosion and congenital. The true form is understood to be that bright red spot that bleeds when pressed and is detected with a normal gynecological examination. Such erosion is dangerous because pus can form on the affected area. As a rule, true erosion lasts about two weeks, then it is covered with connective tissues and grows into pseudo-erosion.
Pseudo-erosion of the cervix is a round red area about 5 mm in diameter, over which pus can also appear, especially if the disease has been taking a long time, which often happens. Pseudo-erosion is typical for girls with an elevated level of female hormones in the blood and can go beyond the cervical canal. The danger of pseudo-erosion lies in the fact that it can develop into a malignant formation.
Sometimes, when looking at girls or adolescents, a gynecologist can find out that the cylindrical epithelium is shifted in the cervix, and on colposcopy it will be seen that it is painted bright red. This is the so-called congenital erosion, which does not need to be treated, since it practically never develops into an oncological entity.
Treatment of erosion of the cervix is mandatory, because the abandonment of this disease without attention is the cause of the appearance of both benign and malignant formations. It can also lead to the development of severe forms of the disease. Timely comprehensive treatment not only does not harm women’s health in any way, but will positively affect it in general. Of course, treatment should be individual.
Effective can be non-surgical treatment of cervical erosion, a specific method of which is selected depending on the severity of the course of the disease, the magnitude, structure of the lesion and the presence of concomitant diseases. As part of the medical treatment of erosion, patients are prescribed anti-inflammatory and hormonal drugs, as well as antibacterial and antiviral drugs, including topical preparations. As an auxiliary therapy, usually directed to improve immunity and restorative drugs. If the pathology was detected in the early stages, it can be completely cured without the use of surgical methods.
Some cases of cervical erosion require surgical treatment, which can now be performed in several effective ways:
1. Laser removal is the most effective and modern method that can provide the highest precision of the cut and at the same time keep healthy tissues intact. As a result, everything heals quickly enough (for 4-6 weeks) and without scars. As a rule, laser treatment is prescribed not to give birth to women.
2. Cryodestruction – treatment of the cervix with liquid nitrogen, that is, its freezing. When interacting with nitrogen, water in the tissue cells becomes crystals, as a result of which the cellular structure of the affected area of the cervix will be destroyed. The healing time in this case is 8-10 weeks, but this method of treatment implies subsequent long-term observation, since together with the unhealthy cells, the surface layer can also be damaged.
3. Diathermocoagulation – burning out cervical erosion by high-frequency electric current. This is the most common way to treat this pathology in women’s clinics, but it is also very painful, with the subsequent formation of scars. Such treatment is recommended for women who already have children and do not plan to give birth further.
4. Chemical coagulation – in the course of this method, the damaged cervical region is treated with special preparations aimed at corroding patients’ cells. Scars after this do not remain, so treatment is appropriate and not giving birth.
5. Radio wave treatment – a section of the cervix with erosion is processed by high energy radio waves, and since there is no pressure on the tissue, tissues are damaged minimally. The burn is completely excluded, because this method is based on evaporation of water molecules from damaged cells. As a result, there is no scarring, and the healing time is halved, amounting to about 3-5 weeks. Radio wave treatment is painless.
6. Electroexcision – excision of the affected area of the cervix.
There is an opinion that it is not necessary to treat erosion of the cervix in women who do not give birth. Yes, if there is erosion of the cervix of small size, it is sometimes considered as a physiological norm and does not prescribe any kinds of interference in the body, except for constant observation. But we must remember that even such erosion is the gateway to infections, and therefore it can indirectly contribute to the emergence of diseases of the organs of the sexual sphere.
Previously, the treatment of unfertilized women was undesirable, because there were no sparing methods. But today there are all the conditions, so you can not postpone the treatment of erosion.
What can be after treatment, and what can not
Regardless of the way in which the cervical erosion treatment has been performed, certain recommendations must be followed afterwards, including, in particular, a complete rejection of sexual activity for 6 weeks. Again, have sex will be possible only after the permission of the gynecologist received on the basis of examination of the cervix.
Also at this time it is desirable to refrain from visiting baths, saunas, swimming pools and taking a bath. Do not temporarily use hygiene tampons. There are restrictions on lifting weights and on intense physical activity.
Traditional methods of treating erosion, usually consisting of tampons with one or another remedy and different types of douching, can not really cure this pathology. However, some of them are suitable for recovery in the postoperative period. 6th
Also after treatment, women should monitor the state of vaginal discharge, which increase is the usual part of normal recovery. If the secretions are clear and have a light admixture of blood, pink or brown and are not abundant, then there is no need to worry. All proceeds without complications. After 8-20 days after the operation, there may be a slight bleeding, which will end in a few hours. This is a normal physiological process. But if the discharge is copious, bloody and accompanied by pain and fever, it is necessary to see a doctor as soon as possible or call an ambulance, because such a condition requires immediate intervention.
However, as with any unpleasant sensations in the gynecological area, it is always better to be safe. After successful treatment of cervical erosion, women can plan pregnancy without fear. Especially if it was treated for all chronic diseases. There are no contraindications for conception after modern operations, or, even more so, after non-surgical treatment of cervical erosion is not available.
Prevention of cervical erosion