Vulvovaginal candidiasis or otherwise genital candidiasis – a disease of the female reproductive system, affecting the mucous membranes of the vagina and vulva. The main cause of disease is the rapid growth of the fungus genus Candida, arising under the influence of a variety of reasons.
The diagnosis of candidiasis vulvovaginitis is exposed when signs of inflammation during examination are revealed both on the external genitalia and inside the vagina. This indicates a significant development of yeast-like fungi and requires the appointment of competent therapy. Candidiasis vulvitis covers with inflammation only the external genitalia and most often the causes of this external pathology, such as inadequate hygiene, mechanical damage.
If the inflammatory process is localized only on the mucous layer of the vagina, then we are talking about vaginitis. The provoking factors of candidal vaginitis are both local and general causes, the most frequent of which can be attributed to a decrease in the functioning of the immune system. In turn, the lack of protective forces can also be provoked by a large group of factors.
Candidiasis vulvovaginitis is divided into several species. This candidosis, acute inflammation and recurrent candidiasis. Symptoms of the disease depend on these forms of the disease.
This form of the disease manifests itself in pronounced symptomatology. Patients referring to a gynecologist, mainly complain about a number of characteristic symptoms.
On the allocation of the vagina, in their structure they resemble cheesy mass. The prominent secret is quite abundant and this leads to irritation of the genital tract and external organs.
The disease is accompanied by severe itching and burning. Irritation leads to scratching of the skin and mucous membranes.
Because of the pronounced process of inflammation, sexual contacts cause pain.
Often an acidic odor is detected.
When examined on the mucous membranes and skin, rashes are revealed, in shape they are similar to small vesicles. Also, hyperemia and noticeable swelling of the vaginal walls, small and large labia. The duration of the acute phase of vulvovaginitis is estimated in two months. If during this time the disease is not cured, then it will pass into a chronic form.
A recurrent form of the disease is exhibited if the disease lasts more than two months. Symptoms are expressed in a small amount, and in most cases may be absent. Allocations are whitish, more rarely normal. One of the most persistent symptoms is itching, it can be either permanent or periodic. Upon examination, the gynecologist draws attention to the atrophy of the vaginal tissues, that is, to their thinning. Infiltration and whitish discharge are also possible.
With this form of subjective manifestations of the disease there, with a vaginal examination of his condition is within normal limits. But at the same time, abnormalities are detected in the smear tests. If the patient does not complain of frequent exacerbation of the thrush, then usually the candidosis is not treated with medications. Asymptomatic candidiasis is detected in almost 20% of women who are in reproductive age.
Candidialism is an indication to increase immunity and preventive treatment before planning conception. During pregnancy, the work of the immune system decreases and the girls are more likely to have symptoms of thrush.
The diagnosis of candidal vulvovaginitis is exposed already on the basis of examination, and confirm it after laboratory diagnosis of the smear. It is also necessary to pass tests for venereal diseases, since thrush often occurs and together with other infections.
General principles of treatment.
Treatment of candidiasis vulvovaginitis requires a comprehensive approach. One should not trust advertising and hope that one tablet is able to cope with the problem and eliminate all symptoms in one day. Indeed, after taking a strong drug, the outer manifestations of vulvovaginitis go away, but this does not mean that you have cured the yeast infection.
It is proved that at the first appearance of acute inflammation caused by fungi, it is enough to pass a correctly selected course of treatment for several days and exacerbations of diseases will no longer be. It is important at this time also to use general restorative therapy and to find out whether there are any diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
Chronic vulvovaginal candidiasis is much more difficult to treat. In order to cope with the disease at this stage, it is sometimes necessary to undergo a complete diagnosis and treat all identified common and gynecological diseases. A long-term treatment with antifungal agents is also needed.
Medication consists of the use of drugs of local and systemic action. Use tablets, capsules, suppositories. When identifying specific pathogens, antibacterial treatment is required depending on the type of pathogen identified. Candida colpitis and vulvovaginitis are treated with antifungal agents locally, they are referred to.
The form of the drug, its dosage and duration of treatment is selected by the doctor. Usually, the cream is prescribed for vulvitis and for uncomplicated vulvovaginitis with early detection of the disease. If the disease takes a long time and with a pronounced symptomatology, then the use of local and general means is necessary. Antifungal drugs with systemic effects on the body include Fluconazole. Ketoconazole in tablets.
An important stage of treatment is also an increase in the work of immunity, which can be achieved with the help of immunomodulating agents and a complex of multivitamins.
During treatment it is necessary to follow general recommendations.
It is necessary to observe sexual rest. That is, sexual contact throughout the course of therapy should not be.
It is necessary to simultaneously treat both sex partners.
Before applying the cream or using candles, it is necessary to wash it. It is best to use decoctions of anti-inflammatory herbs for these purposes.
In parallel with the main treatment, it is necessary to improve the microflora of the intestinal tract, for which probiotics can be used.
After treatment, it is necessary to re-take tests, this will help to judge the effectiveness of therapy.
Medications for treatment of thrush during pregnancy are selected strictly by a doctor. Some antifungal medications can have a negative effect on the fetus, and therefore are not recommended for use.
Prevention of candidal vulvovaginitis is considered to be the constant observance of hygiene of the sexual organs, the presence of one sexual partner, the timely treatment of general and gynecological diseases.
The diagnosis of candidal vaginitis or colpitis is exhibited when the manifestations of the life of yeast-like fungi affect only the sheaths of the vagina.
Vulvit – an inflammatory change affecting only the external genitalia, that is, large and small labia.