Paradox of the situation: the cancer of the vulva appears early enough, it is easy to determine, but, nevertheless, most patients enter treatment IIIA stage II. It is important that the vulvar cancer itself does not arise. In most cases for its occurrence there are background factors leukoplakia (white plaque), kraurosis, preinvasive cancer of the zero stage, multiple condylomata, herpes.
The nature of origin of vulvar cancer is indicated by the histological changes in the cells of the mucosa. Under a microscope it is clearly seen that this is a local process affecting a locally restricted area. Doctors and researchers believe that the provoking factors of vulvar cancer are: infection with the human papillomavirus, other infections of the genitals, including sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), chronic circulatory disorders of the vulva tissues due to the wearing of tight lingerie. Of the non-gynecological factors, diabetes mellitus, chronic intoxication when smoking and working in a polluted environment, systemic skin diseases are on the first place.
The first symptom, which, unfortunately, remains without attention itch. It is rarely associated with hypothermia or with food and medication (like with thrush). Itching may intensify at night or when used for intimate soap hygiene, as well as after intercourse, under stress. Later, itching stops, and on the mucosa appears painful compaction or nodule. Pain is implicit, it is also influenced by the state of the nervous system, mechanical effect.
Simultaneously with the pain, one can detect a tumor, ulceration, or wrinkling of the mucosa. Unfortunately, and at this stage patients rarely consult a doctor, using local healing or antiseptic drugs. Meanwhile, with the spread of the process, the pain intensifies, the tumor penetrates into the vagina, the urethra area, the anus. Unpleasant-looking mucous discharge, pus, blood appear, general symptoms of cancer intoxication, weakness, weight loss, anemia join.
Diagnosis and treatment.
The simplest gynecological examination will reveal even the initial stage of vulvar cancer. It is all the more bitter to realize this, knowing that more than 70% of women come with already neglected forms of cancer. Upon examination, the doctor will see an altered mucosal site that can be a sore, or a dense, submucous cone or crateral depression. The biopsy, which is taken during the examination, histologically confirms the diagnosis.
To clarify the prevalence of the process can be carried out cystoscopy, colposcopy, sigmoidoscopy, computed tomography. Treatment depends on the stage of vulva cancer and its type. A non-invasive type of cancer in the early stages can be limited to chemotherapy or treatment with radioisotopes. The cancer is extensive, with metastases requiring a combination of these methods with surgical treatment of vulvectomy.
Within 5 years after the treatment of vulvar cancer in I II stages, the survival rate is more than 75%. Later stages give a chance to survive only 35-40% of women.