Breast cyst is a single or multiple pathological cavities of the breast with liquid contents that form in the ducts. It can last for a long time without symptoms, then it becomes painful and burning in the mammary gland, which intensifies before and during menstruation. Inflammation and suppuration of the cystic cavity may develop. The cyst itself can rarely degenerate into breast cancer, but it increases the risk of its development. Often occurs along with other dyshormonal pathologies of the genital area. Cysts of large size change the shape of the breast.
The cyst is filled with a non-inflammatory fluid and a cavity within the body of the body bounded by the connective tissue capsule. The cyst of the breast is a symptom of fibrocystic mastopathy (nodular or diffuse.
The cyst is formed as a result of the enlargement of one of the gland ducts, accumulation in the secreted secretion cavity, the formation of a fibrous capsule. Cysts are round, oval, irregular in shape. Their size varies from a few millimeters (small cysts) to 5 centimeters or more (giant cysts). A typical cyst is characterized by smooth, even internal walls. Atypical cyst has on the walls of proliferation, protruding into the cavity of the cyst.
Cysts of the breast can be single and multiple. With polycystic mammary glands (Reclus disease), numerous different-sized cysts merge, forming multi-chambered clusters. As a result, the altered cystic tissue takes up more than half of the gland tissue. Capsule cysts, as a rule, consist of benign cells, but can also contain malignant cells. Cysts of the mammary glands – a fairly common pathology, the bowl is found in nulliparous women 35-55 years.
Also in the chest area can develop fatty cyst. It is not associated with the secretory tissue of the breast, but is formed as a result of blockage and secretion of the sebaceous gland secretion. Most often, it does not cause much anxiety and does not degenerate into malignant formations, but with a large size it can become inflamed.
In the development of breast cysts, hormonal balance plays a big role. Excess production of estrogens, bias hormonal balance towards estrogenia by suppressing the production of other hormones, the intake of hormonal contraceptives without taking into account the individual hormonal status leads to the disorder of the system of sexual hormonal regulation. Often the development of the cyst is provoked by mastitis. ovarian dysfunction (for example, with PCOS), thyroid gland pathologies, internal inflammations of the internal genitalia (adnexitis, endometritis, etc.).
Symptoms of a breast cyst.
Small cysts most often do not bother the patient at all and are detected accidentally during mammograms. Larger cystic lesions can cause a feeling of soreness and a feeling of tightening of the mammary glands shortly before menstruation.
Stuffed large cysts can be manifested by constant pain, burning, pulling sensations, uneven compaction to the touch. Clinical manifestations are no longer dependent on the phase of the menstrual cycle. Giant cysts can cause a visible deformation of the breast, a discoloration of the skin above it (redness, then cyanosis). The inflammation developed in the cyst is characterized by the development of fever. local hyperemia (reddening of the skin of the breast), an increase in axillary lymph nodes.
Diagnosis of the mammary gland cyst.
To reveal a cyst it is possible already at a palpation of a mammary gland (except for small malofilled cysts). Confirms the diagnosis of ultrasound and mammography (breast x-ray). Mammography provides information on the presence, size, shape and number of cysts. Ultrasound of the mammary glands allows you to study the cyst in detail and reveal the nature of the cyst walls (the presence of intra-cavernous parietal formations). It is possible to carry out an MRI of the breast. Identification of cysts with papillomatous parietal masses requires an aspiration biopsy of the mammary gland under the control of an ultrasound transducer, as well as pneumocystography. This study allows a more detailed study of the walls of the cystic capsule.
The material obtained with fine needle aspiration biopsy is subjected to a histological examination. studying the cellular composition. Aspirate of uncomplicated cysts, as a rule, does not contain cells, or they are present in an insignificant amount. If a large number of epithelial cells is detected in the aspirate, this may indicate the development of a tumor in the cystic cavity. Aspirate of dark brown color (“chocolate”) allows you to imagine the intra-flow papilloma that takes place. or breast cancer. Also, the nature of the aspirate can be concluded about the presence of inflammation in the cyst. Detection of mammary glands requires careful examination of the patient’s hormonal status, and it is also advisable to consult a gynecologist.
Complications of the breast cyst.
The breast cyst in itself does not represent an immediate threat to life and does not lead to a marked deterioration in the quality of life (if it does not have significant dimensions). Problems arise when inflammation is attached, infection and suppuration of the cyst, as well as in the case of giant cysts deforming the gland and causing noticeably troubling discomfort.
Extremely rare, but there are cases of the degeneration of cysts into cancer. However, the presence of fibro-cystic mastopathy in women increases the risk of developing breast cancer.
Treatment of the cyst of the breast.
The main value in the therapy of multiple mammary gland cysts is the normalization of the woman’s natural hormonal balance. In order to determine the tactics of treatment together with the endocrinologist, a thorough analysis of the endocrine system is carried out, pathology of endocrine glands and genital organs is revealed. After identifying the causes of hormonal imbalance, appropriate correction is carried out.
Direct cysts are treated directly with fine needle punctures (piercing the cystic cavity and aspiration of the fluid) followed by sclerotherapy (introduction into the cavity liberated from the fluid, contributing to the obliteration of the cyst). Such a method is effective in simple single-chamber cysts without signs of malignancy and the presence of intra-flow papilloma in the cavity. Puncture is performed under the control of an ultrasonic sensor. After such treatment, dynamic monitoring of the mammal with regular ultrasound examination of the mammary glands is necessary to detect recurrence of cyst formation.
In case of detection of multiple, multi-chamber cysts in a history of breast cancer, the presence of atypical epithelial growth in the cyst cavity, a sectoral resection of the mammary gland is performed, followed by a histological examination of the extracted material. Removal of the cyst of the breast does not affect the functionality of the glands and does not prevent further breastfeeding.