Amenorrhea translated from Latin means no monthly bleeding, that is, menstruation. Amenorrhea is not an independent disease, it is a syndrome that is characteristic of many diseases, not only in the female sexual sphere, but also in some common ones. In addition, amenorrhea is physiological, that is, normal for a given period of a woman’s life. This is the age-related amenorrhea (in pre-pubertal girls and women who have reached menopause), amenorrhea during pregnancy and lactational amenorrhea.
Causes of amenorrhea.
The onset of menstruation is regulated by the neurohumoral mechanism, which is provided by the work of the brain, nervous system and hormones. Failure at any stage of this mechanism can cause amenorrhea. Also, the causes of amenorrhea may be physiological processes in the body of a woman, which are not deviations. Another group of causes of amenorrhea – abnormalities in the anatomical structure, which can be congenital or acquired.
All causes of amenorrhea are divided into primary and secondary.
Primary amenorrhea is a condition when menstruation does not appear at all. Secondary amenorrhea is a condition where already existing menstruation for one reason or another has stopped.
Primary amenorrhea can be caused by the following reasons.
Anatomical causes of amenorrhea. Delayed development of the reproductive system, as well as anomalies in the structure of the external genitalia (this includes false amenorrhoea, when spotting is formed, but does not go outside due to infections in the hymen or vagina.
Hereditary, or genetic causes of amenorrhea. This group includes anomalies in the structure of the internal genital organs as a result of hereditary diseases (Turner syndrome, Kallmann syndrome, testicular feminization syndrome, etc.) or other disorders that occurred during fetal development.
Physiological causes of amenorrhea. Physiological primary amenorrhea is the norm before pubertal age.
Secondary amenorrhea may be caused by the following factors.
Emotional-mental causes of amenorrhea.
Physical overload. Heavy physical work, excessive involvement in sports can cause amenorrhea.
Pituitary insufficiency, usually caused by the tumor process in the pituitary gland.
Chronic inflammatory diseases of the uterine appendages (chronic adnexitis.
The degeneration of normal ovarian tissue into the scar-fibrous structure as a result of the transferred adnexitis.
Tumors of the ovaries and fallopian tubes.
Disturbances of fat metabolism: obesity or vice versa, a critical reduction in the amount of adipose tissue necessary for a normal exchange of estrogens.
Diagnosis of amenorrhea.
The diagnosis of pathological amenorrhea is based on the absence of menstruation after the onset of sixteen years (primary amenorrhea) or as a result of the cessation of menstruation for more than six months (secondary amenorrhea.
Diagnostic measures are conducted to determine the cause of the deviation, and depending on the form (primary amenorrhea or secondary amenorrhea) have some differences.
At the primary amenorrhea necessarily conduct karyotyping – genetic diagnosis, consisting in the study of the chromosome set. A family history is collected to identify a possible hereditary predisposition. Also used ultrasound of the pelvic organs, gynecological examination, determination of the hormonal status in dynamics. Depending on the detected deviations, certain additional studies can be assigned.
Diagnosis of secondary amenorrhea includes gynecological examination, ultrasound, including intravaginal ultrasound, blood tests, urine, bacteriological sowing of vaginal discharge, hormonal diagnosis, study of the immune system, endoscopic examination of internal genital organs. If there is a suspicion of a tumor, CT (computer tomography) or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is performed.
Treatment of amenorrhea.
Treatment of amenorrhea consists in eliminating the cause that caused its appearance. The general scheme of amenorrhea treatment is as follows.
With amenorrhea, the cause of which was hormonal deficiency, eliminate the cause of failure, and in the event that it is impossible, correct hormonal deficiency with hormone replacement therapy.
Treatment of amenorrhea caused by inflammatory gynecological diseases consists in the use of anti-inflammatory therapy, sometimes there is a need for surgical intervention (elimination of adhesions, restoration of patency of the fallopian tubes, etc.).
Treatment of amenorrhea due to psycho-emotional problems consists in correcting the neurological status: soft sedatives are prescribed, relaxation techniques are taught, the normalization of the rest and activity regime is necessary, sometimes a change of place of work is required.
In addition, the most important condition for the successful treatment of amenorrhea in any form is the normalization of the way of life in general. It is necessary to maintain a healthy lifestyle, with sufficient, but not excessive physical activity and proper nutrition.
Treatment of amenorrhea folk remedies.
Treatment of amenorrhea with folk remedies can be effective only if amenorrhea is caused by inflammatory processes or psycho-emotional causes. In all other cases, correction can be made only by qualified medical intervention.
To eliminate the inflammatory causes of amenorrhea, folk remedies are usually medicinal herbs in the form of decoctions and infusions, applied either locally in the form of trays and douching, or in the form of teas for the purpose of general strengthening of the body. As anti-inflammatory agents use decoctions and infusions of aira, eucalyptus, alternatives, celandine, St. John’s wort, mother-and-stepmother, sage, camomile and other herbal medicines. As fortifying – aloe juice, St. John’s wort, elecampane, fragrant rue. Also, honey and other products of beekeeping are used as amoxicillin and immunostimulating folk remedies for amenorrhea: pollen, royal jelly.
In the presence of psycho-emotional causes of amenorrhea, folk remedies are used as a mild sedative. These are tinctures or teas from motherwort, yarrow, valerian, peppermint, lemon balm, valerian, hops.
Before you treat amenorrhea with folk remedies, you should consult a doctor and get a diagnosis, and make sure that there is no allergic reaction to the drugs used.